Simulation Technology for Toner Melting Process in Fusing System

As the digital printing market expands, there is a growing demand for xerographic devices offering higher image quality and productivity. In order to develop a new fusing unit to meet this demand, it is important to understand and control the melting and deforming process of toner that affects fusing quality. However, it is difficult to actually observe that process in a fusing unit. Numerical simulation is also difficult, as various physical elements such as heat, the viscoelasticity of toner, phase change of toner from solid to liquid, fluid dynamics, as well as the large deformation of toner, must be carefully considered. Fuji Xerox has established the industry's first toner melting simulation technology using the CCUP method, Leonov model, and WLF equation. This simulation technology can visualize the toner melting process as affected by pressure, temperature, and process speed, and is used in such areas as design conception.


  • Satoshi Hasebe
    Marking Technology Laboratory, Research & Technology Group